Dzerzhinsk High-Voltage Mast is the world’s only surviving hyperboloid electricity pylon. It is located in Russia, in the western suburbs of Nizhny Novgorod, on the left bank of the Oka River near Dzerzhinsk.
Only a few years ago there was a pair of 128-meter-high masts. Before 1989, one could see six hyperboloid pylons - two 20-meter, two 68-meter and a tall pair. 20 years ago the powerline was rerouted and the 20- and 68 meter pylons were dismantled. The 128 metre pylons were left intact as a monument. Today, only one of the 128-meter pylons stands as the other was illegally scrapped for metal in May 2005.
The Shukhov Tower consists of five 25-metre steel lattice sections, formed by single-cavity hyperboloids of revolution. The pylon sections are made of straight profiles, the ends of which rest against circular foundations. The tower's circular concrete foundation has a diameter of 30 metres.
It was a part of of a 110kV powerline crossing the Oka River. Between 1927 and 1929, two parallel-running, 110kV, three-phase AC powerlines designed by Russian engineer and scientist Vladimir Shukhov were built there.
Shukhov is renowned for his pioneering works on new methods of analysis for structural engineering that led to breakthroughs in industrial design of world's first hyperboloid structures, lattice shell structures, tensile structures, gridshell structures, oil reservoirs, pipelines, boilers, ships and barges.
The full list of his inventions and project can be a good stuff for a separate blog. So let's concentrate on Shukhov's hyperboloids.
In the 1880s, Shukhov began to work on the problem of the design of roof systems to use a minimum of materials, time and labor. His calculations were most likely derived from mathematician Pafnuty Chebyshev's work on the theory of best approximations of functions. Shukhov's mathematical explorations of efficient roof structures led to his invention of a new system that was innovative both structurally and spatially. By applying his analytical skills to the doubly-curved surfaces Nikolai Lobachevsky named "hyperbolic", Shukhov derived a family of equations that led to new structural and constructional systems, known as hyperboloids of revolution and hyperbolic paraboloids.
The very first structure of the kind, patented in 1896, was built for the Nizhny Novgorod Arts & Crafts Fair (left). The most famous Shukhov's hyperboloid tower is much younger and taller (160m), built in Moscow in 1922 for the Radio Service.
On the Black Sea near Kherson (Ukraine) there is 70-meter Adziogol Lighthouse designed by Shukhov. His ideas influenced the US Navy - look at the USS Louisiana lattice mast!
And now - a few color shots of the Oka tower made by metro_rumata @ LJ
There's more in the author's blog.
Some text and illustrations from Wiki were used. Thanks, guys!